DOBERMANS in RUSSIA (the very beginning)

Russian dog lovers immediately drew attention to a new breed, which was developed by German breeder, Friedrich Louis Doberman. Its first representatives appeared in 1902. Of course, they were purchased in Germany on occasion. A wider and more conscious interest in the breed was discovered a little later. The propagandist of the Doberman, or rather the Doberman Pinscher, as it was then called, was a very active and professional cynologist V. I. Lebedev. He was able to appreciate the high working potential of the breed and began to popularize it as a police dog.  

The idea of using dogs for the search service came to the head of the police Commissioner Laufer (Germany) in 1901. It found its real embodiment a year later, thanks to the industrial district of Westphalia, where the “society for the promotion and breeding of police dogs”was founded on June 28, 1902.

Having studied the publications on this subject by the largest cynologist in Germany, Robert Gersbach, having visited the Belgian city of Ghent, where the school for training dogs for search service in the police worked with great success, Lebedev published the book “Police dog in Ghent”in the spring of 1907. He did not limit himself to this and began to besiege the largest police officers in Russia and aristocrats close to the Royal court. His efforts were not in vain. On October 5, 1908, the “Russian society for encouraging dogs to police and guard service” was established . This organization was very fashionable and prestigious, because it was under the patronage of the Royal family.

By the beginning of 1911, the members of the Society already “numbered 256 persons”, among them the Chamberlain of the Highest Court, state Secretary P. A. Stolypin, for example, and the honorary Chairman of the Council of the Society, the Emperor appointed” according to the most faithful ” report of the Minister of the Court, Prince Alexander Petrovich of Oldenburg.

The first organization of service dog breeding in Russia set several goals: “promoting the correct use of dogs in various conditions of the police and guard service and making it easier for members of the police to familiarize themselves with the most suitable breeds of dogs, training techniques, conditions for their education, maintenance and use for official purposes” (from the Charter of the Society).

Soon three schools will open in St. Petersburg: 1) under the direction Of V. I. Lebedev, 2) the St. Petersburg police, and 3) the Palace school under the direction of the Swedish instructor E. Askolm. In the same year 1909, similar schools and nurseries appeared in the cities of the Baltic States, which were part of the Russian Empire, following the example of St. Petersburg. By the end of 1911, there are already up to 80 nurseries in Russia and training courses for instructors are starting to work in all major cities.

Opened by Lebedev in St. Petersburg, the school of trainers managed to provide trained guides and dogs to more than 60 cities of the Russian Empire in 4 years. Graduates of the school who completed a theoretical and practical three-month course could not only work as guides themselves, but also “train other ranks to train police dogs”. The tuition fee at the School was quite high – 50 rubles. Each cadet was given one dog worth from 100 to 160 rubles, depending on its purchase price. In addition, students could buy in the school’s kennel another thoroughbred, but not trained dog “for offspring” cost from 75 to 100 rubles. Thus, training one cadet “with a table and an apartment” and with the purchase of one trained dog cost 250-300 rubles, and with two – 350-400. 

In isolated cases, the police purchased Airedale Terriers and German shepherds for further training, but mostly Dobermans. Moreover, by about 1910, a fairly clear idea of what puppies should be was developed. Lebedev, in his next book “Guide to training police and service dogs”, which has survived at least five editions, wrote: “Doberman pinchers should never be bought in kennels with mass breeding of dogs, because such dogs are often timid.” Most Dobermans of that period were quite long-haired, had a dense undercoat and calmly endured bad weather. However, relatively short-haired Dobermans were also encountered, but they, as noted by experts, were quite suitable for use in the police service: “Short hair can not be considered an inconvenience, – Lebedev argued, – on the contrary, this breed in areas with extremely harsh climate was very hardy and suitable ( in the German Ludensheide, and we tested in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Livonia and Courland provinces).”

One of the main requirements imposed by dog buyers was the temperament of the Doberman: “by temperament we mean a certain degree of excitement of the nerves and we speak of a lively temperament if the excitement and impressionability are great, and of a calm temperament if they are not great. The more lively the dog’s temperament, the more guarantees it has for successful training. Sparkling, lively eyes, fast moves and friendly attitude to indicate intense passion and courage. Dogs that constantly watch their master and his every move are usually brave, distrustful, and always ready to fight.” (V. I. Lebedev, ” training Manual…”, St. Petersburg., 1913, p. 135).

The first all-Russian tests of police dogs contributed to the popularization of service dog breeding. They were held on October 19, 1908, and were honored with their presence by the commander-in-Chief of the guard and the St. Petersburg military district, Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich. His presence made the event particularly attractive to influential social snobs and a” select Metropolitan audience ” filled the arena.

The Doberman of Clubs won a resounding victory in the trials. It was a medium-sized, stocky dog with a short and strong head and fairly long hair. He was born in the Riga police nursery. Descended from a Russian-born Boy and a German female Florida from the famous kennel “von Thuringen”, which belonged to the best pupil of Louis Doberman-Otto Geller.

His triumph at the trials and his absolutely successful day-to-day work with the police made Him a living legend. The exploits of the Club were eagerly covered by leading Russian journalists. Each step is described in detail. In its popularity, it could only compete with the first Russian film star Vera Kholodnaya, who became famous a little later.

Wonderful trained Clubs graduate School Lebedeva policeman warden Dmitriev.

What was tested on the tests, what requirements were determined by the rules? I will quote the test regulations in full, keeping the spelling and style: “1. Chasing a stranger on a fresh trail and barking at him. Follow only the footprint. Distance up to 1500 meters – 15 points. 2. Barking at the person you are looking for in a crowd; following objects, such as an axe, hammer, or knife. the stick that the person was looking for had in his hands. The trail is fresh. – 20 points. 3. Stalking and detaining a person by instinct in the room where the person took refuge. Distance up to 1500 meters. – 20 points. 4. Find and follow a fresh trail that is interrupted by water. Swim across the water and continue the pursuit until it reaches you. – 20 points. 5. Follow a fresh trail in the house and discover the person you are looking for. Distance up to 1500 meters. – 20 points. 6. Searching the area visited by the criminal and bringing all dropped or thrown items. – 20 points.”

Immediately after his victory in St. Petersburg, crowned with a silver Cup on behalf of the Chairman of the society of the stalemate of the Highest Court, V. I. Denisov, he was sold, presumably for a lot of money, to the Moscow mayor. In Moscow, he continued his impeccable career in the police and became the main producer of the breed for several years.

Muscovites were enthusiastic about the great dog. In early December 1909, at the invitation of the hunting Society named after Emperor Alexander II, a certain N. N. Koenige exhibited four sheepdogs in the Moscow Manege, and the mayor-his Club. Most of the most popular Moscow publications – “Morning of Russia”, “Voice of Moscow”, “Moscow leaf”, “Moscow Vedomosti” responded to this event.

It was the police dogs that became the highlight of the exhibition. In the weekly “Police dog” (#28 of 17.12.1909), Lebedev exulted: “we must do justice to the Muscovites: compared with St. Petersburg, they are much more interesting and attractive able to arrange their hunting and dog shows…. The arena was elegantly decorated with flags and greenery. Dog stands shone with a special purity, a lot of light, even a military band and a “hunting” cinema! In the center, in the best place , is a small platform, richly decorated… in the Middle of it is a large shield with the inscription: police dogs. Doberman-Pinscher of Clubs”.

The main prize and the gold medal were awarded to the Club, and Mr. Koenig’s sheepdogs were awarded silver medals.

Vlas doroshevich, the most ironic and brilliant reporter and theater critic of the beginning of the century, could not resist the reaction to this event. In the Russian word newspaper, he wrote: “the Hero of the day is a dog. A dog that was mistakenly called by the vulgar name of Clubs. It should be called:

– sherlock holmes.

NAT Pinkerton.

– Brilliant detective dog. it is eagerly awaited by the audience in the Arena. This dog may be able to tell us who was killed in Leshtukov lane.

“One Club can tell who finally killed tihanovich.”

The purchase of dogs in Europe, mainly in Germany, was carried out in parallel with Russia’s own breeding of Dobermans. Moreover, the provincial police authorities had their own powers. In January 1908, for example, the Mitavo-Baussky district chief Baron von Raden discharged from Braunschweig (Germany) from the police inspector Bussenius ten police dogs. Together with them, a wachmister arrived to train dogs under the special training team of the Courland police guard (“dog Breeding and training”, no. 2-3, p. 3-5). A large batch of Dobermans was purchased according to preserved documents in 1912.

Individual individuals also became interested in the breed. In the Pedigree book of the Moscow hunting Society (volume IV, 1912), three Doberman females were registered that belonged to A. K. Rosenwald-Florida f. Thuringen, closely associated with the leading German manufacturer Prince f. ILM Aten, Ilonka f. Thuringen and her daughter Ada.

The military Department was also interested in using and breeding service dogs. In 1912, the regimental kennel of military field dogs was organized. In Tsarskoye Selo, a temporary instructor course for guides from infantry regiments was opened for the hussar regiment, and this business began to develop in army units. Considerable benefit – according to the historian of cynology V. L. Weissman, had dogs in the railway gendarme police.

In 1914, tsarist Russia sent 300 dogs to the front lines of the first world war, which were used for guard and relay services, and for communication services. This, of course, is much less than Germany used (6 thousand dogs at the beginning of the war and up to 20 thousand later, France sent up to 10 thousand dogs to fight).

In short, the initial period of official use of dogs in General and Dobermans, in particular, was undoubtedly triumphant and more than justified the forecasts of the German propagandist of the breed von Ott from Bensdorf, who at one time predicted: “the Future belongs to the Doberman Pinscher. All other breeds he will far surpass in number, improvement of the breed and in the sense of preference, which he will use before other breeds” (quote from the weekly “Police and guard dog”). 

At the beginning of the century, another German cynologist, Baron von Zerlitz (alias – Zegwald), paid attention to the universalism of the Doberman, warmly recommending it as a “gendarme dog”. He also noted, it seems, one of the first, the beauty of the Doberman. Here are his words in the “German hunting newspaper”: “Dobermanpinchery, originating from the crossing of the old German shepherd and the German Pinscher, differ in striking vigilance and care; they defend their master with desperate bravery, are indispensable as guides when walking in secluded areas or when riding, in a carriage or on a Bicycle; they are surprisingly smart, they are successfully used as shepherds and in General for pastoral service; on parfors they are very valuable due to their high speed in aportirovanii wounded hares – usually with a voice chase him in the bushes, because of their many-sided features, they can be successfully used as a military dog. A frisky, energetic dobermanpinscher is a very smart animal. And at exhibitions, it always takes one of the first places.”

The revolution, Civil war and devastation in Russia led to the death of the main population of service dogs, and many documents were irretrievably lost. But the grateful memory of the wonderful dogs of the beginning of the century was preserved, and they were again required for service in 1918.

In Moscow, several private nurseries were miraculously preserved. On the basis of one of them previously owned by von Meck, there was a nursery in 1918, serving the transport Department of the OGPU. The new government in 1922 organized an “exemplary” nursery in Leningrad at the Porcelain post. At the same time, a nursery was established under the criminal investigation Department of the Republic at the Losinoostrovskaya station near Moscow. A year later, the Central border guard courses of the OGPU were opened in Kuskovo, near Moscow.

Until the early 20s, the Doberman had not yet been touched by the fame of the handsome man and he was generally perceived as an exclusively working breed. The army, police, border guards and security officers took care of collecting representatives of the old Russian breeding, “Russian Dobermans” and purchasing new dogs in Germany for gold. Money was spared for this. Purchasing activity was shown, as before, not only in the capital and Central offices, but also in the far periphery. For example, at the first service dog show held in Tiflis (Tbilisi) in 1928, 138 dogs were examined. Of these, 50 Dobermans, 42 German shepherds, 18 mestizo and 17 Caucasian shepherds. And in Ashgabat, which is very far from the dog breeding centers, 64 Dobermans, 6 German shepherds and 40 Kyrgyz shepherds were registered in the same year.

In 1921, V. I. Lenin announced a new economic policy (NEP). The people were slightly sated and began to look at art, beauty, and culture. Soviet dog lovers suddenly discovered that the Doberman had turned into a beautiful dog. And Western experts began to talk about Dobermans of the old type almost with a grin. 

German Otto Zetegast in the specialized publication “Unser dobermann” in 1924 reported: “the Appearance of the dog around 1900 is well preserved in my memory. Almost all of them were stocky rather than tall, very often long rather than short in the back, with a powerful neck and a very strong muscular nape. Dogs, which the devil is not your brother, animated by an indomitable spirit attack. At the same time, almost without exception, they were Pacers.”

More harmonious and elegant Dobermans, without signs of rudeness, with short shiny hair, slender neck, of course, looked much more noble.

Domestic dog breeders, sensitive to beauty, adequately reacted to them. Dobermans of the new type are increasingly being acquired by Amateurs, not just professionals.

In 1925, the section for lovers of Doberman Pinschers and German shepherds was formed.” The task of the section is “maintaining the development of blood service dog breeding in the USSR”. In fact, this section became the first organization of Amateur service dog breeding in our country. In its tasks, it did not quite fit into the framework of hunting interests and in less than three years joined Osoaviakhim, an organization from which later grew such a colossus as the Voluntary society for the promotion of the army, aviation and Navy (DOSAAF). As part of the new structure, service dog lovers began to ” organize as many training grounds as possible… “(Yu. Rumyantsev, Zh.” dog Breeding and training”, 1928, no.6). The army, which needed dogs that were well-bred and trained by Amateurs, willingly supported this initiative: it helped with obtaining playgrounds and arranging rooms for clubs, organizing competitions and exhibitions. It provided ceremonial and pomp to the events of service dog breeding clubs: orchestras, prizes, advertising, etc. Fans of service dog breeds received feed on preferential terms.

From the mid-20s to the mid-30s, service dog breeding in the USSR flourished. A serious scientific and practical role in the creation of the national direction of service dog breeding was played by the Central school of military dog breeding, which included a canine laboratory.

Soviet specialists developed very sensible methods, instructions and instructions for training, keeping and breeding dogs. A huge contribution to the world has made professionals such as ilovaisky, Languages, Wiseman, Ilyin, I., Mazover. The world’s first book on dog genetics, which became the Foundation for further scientific research, was written by Ilyin. In the field of scientific and practical experiments in cynology, The Krasnaya Zvezda kennel at the Central school of military dog breeding made a significant contribution.

Since the mid-20s, annual exhibitions have become especially popular, especially all-Union ones, where both Amateurs and departmental nurseries demonstrated their achievements. The examination at these exhibitions was often carried out by German judges. Dobermans were evaluated by luminaries-President of the German Doberman veraina V. Klodt, E. Bauman, E. Otto…

Summing up the results of the IV-th all-Union exhibition, the reviewer noted: “In terms of the number of exhibits (420 dogs), it surpassed the exhibitions of the largest cities in Europe.” In this same note, published in the very informative magazine “dog Breeding and training”, the author gives two interesting tables in which he compares the quantitative indicators of this exhibition and its last year’s (1927) counterpart. It turns out that 91 Dobermans were shown in 1927 and 128 in 1928. at the same time, there is also a tendency to increase the number of Dobermans owned by private individuals. If in 1927, fans presented 84 Dobermans, then the next year – already 112.

At the all-Union exhibition in 1925, the public could see 116 Dobermans, among which 38 were brought to the USSR from Germany. Not only state organizations had the opportunity to buy dogs abroad, but also private individuals and Amateurs. Among the new type of Dobermans, with a more noble appearance, Horst F. Stresoff, bona F. Seehagen, and Artus F. Eichenhain, brought to Leningrad, stood out. Bona and Artus were the children of the great Doberman Lux F. Blankenburg, the father of many Champions.

The owner of the Bona tied it with Horst, thus carrying out inbreeding on the famous German manufacturers of that time, Burschel F. Simmenau (III-III) and ASTA FOSS (III, III-III). This combination of Leningrad breeder Kikar carried out on the recommendation of German experts. Horst and Bona’s offspring were highly successful and determined the Russian Doberman breeding for a considerable period of time. A noticeable trace in our population was left by a female from this litter of Boron f. Arbat.

Here is its description, made in 1926 by Willie Klodt: “on the example of this female, the Leningrad breeder Gennigson, who listened to us, showed the Russian breeders the Doberman as we would like to see it in Germany. This is the type of correctly built dog that holds itself with dignity and does not look over-developed. The female is inferior to its competitors in height: a little too small” (CIT. by J. “Doberman”, no. 25, p. 12).

It is necessary to comment on the word “over-developed”. Many people today may think that we are talking about excessive physical development. This is a mistake. In those years, when there was a tendency to breed emphatically noble, very dry and lean Dobermans, which was partly an echo of the influx of refined Greyhound blood, it was considered normal to develop the breed in the direction of emphasized refinement, refinement. And when this trend crossed a certain line, Dobermans resembling light and graceful gazelles in their build were called “over-developed”.

Horst vom Strezov’s exhibition career was more than successful. Both these dogs, so unlike the old Dobermans of Russia, had excellent exterior data and they instantly became the first Champions of the USSR. And the all-Union winner of 1926, Artus von Eichenhain, according to A. p. Mazover, “was a mass improver of livestock”. And another Leningrad dog played a significant role in our selection. It was an adult ASTA von der spree brought from Germany. She left behind the” best of all born in the USSR ” pre-war champion Amor von der Neve. “It was a powerful, monumental dog with powerful bones and muscles. The most valuable thing about him is the remarkable head of strict parallel lines and the Herculean chest. both of these traits were consistently passed on in posterity.” (A. Mazover). His best daughter, Tanita, won the title of Soviet champion at the age of one.

Muscovites were able to compete with Leningrad breeders only after purchasing several outstanding Dobermans in Germany. A. p. Mazover wrote them out. The best of them, Frey F. Strezov, arrived a little late. Impatient Alexander Pavlovich could not wait for him and grabbed the brown Benno f. Forstenberg who arrived earlier. Frey got another active Dobermans Woyzeck. These two males were radically different from each other and represented fundamentally different types. If Frey is a bright representative of the Dobermans of the “Northern” direction in breeding the breed-elegant, somewhat lightweight, with an explosive temperament, a long dry head and neck, then Benno was a typical “southern” dog-heavy, somewhat squat, rough with not very tightly stretched skin, strong bones. It was a great service quality and he almost always won in competitions on training. Frey, according to the memoirs of A. Mazover, “was never beaten”, easily won the first places in the exhibition rings.

These two are opposite to each other dogs has divided fans of the breed into two camps with irreconcilable positions. The debate about what a true Doberman should be, which began in Germany, unfolded in Russia.

German specialist Herbert Savitsky acted as an apologist for the old-type Doberman and an opponent of the new style. “It would be a pity if the noble Doberman Pinscher turns into a pampered lap dog. Currently … Doberman pinchers of the old type with thick and long hair, with a strongly compressed body and with wide, but hard as steel jaws meet with a smile. But when it comes to work, this temperamental Doberman is not so easy to beat more beautiful competitors. It seems to everyone that the Doberman Pinscher should be more elegant and proud, the forceps (muzzle-E. R.) should be sharper and longer, the hair shorter and smoother, and the undercoat disappear. The current Doberman is already very close to this ideal.” Approximately at the same time (1928), a major German judge Zettegast, publishing his report on the examination of Dobermans and describing the famous male Helios F. Zegestor, notes: “Because of training, he is spoiled for the ring” (“Unser Dobermann-pinscher”, 1.05.28). The decline in the working qualities of the “Russian Doberman” Soviet thinking dog handlers explained not only the specifics of new approaches to breeding, but also other, no less serious circumstances. A. Nemtsov tried to discuss these problems publicly. The article, which he eloquently called “delusion”, says the following: “the Doberman is the best of all other breeds represented in the USSR. It is just as easy as other imported breeds to endure the conditions of our climate. On susceptibility to training in the most different services has no equal. The percentage of cowardly, downtrodden, sluggish Dobermans is directly negligible, on the contrary, bold, evil, passionate, hot in the work of the majority… what is the fault of the Doberman? The fault is that the Doberman can not be trained with a whip and stick, that the Doberman requires cultural conditions for its content. To refuse the Doberman only for these reasons, would not mean to sign that it is difficult for us to keep a cultured dog clean, keep it from starving, and entrust training to persons who are capable of this and have the right to their moral and other qualities?”.

Quite convincingly, the correctness of these words is confirmed by research on the work of dogs in the Moscow criminal investigation Department, where they were competently kept and skillfully used. Chernyaev has published in the magazine “dog Breeding and training” (no. 2-3) reports for the years 1927-1928. In total, during this period, four Muura dogs, two Dobermans and two German shepherds, solved 136 crimes. at the same time, 89%, i.e. more than 65% belong to the Dobermans Beru and Kara.

Objectively speaking, until the end of the 20s, there was no clear imbalance between the elegance and strength of Russian Dobermans. Strong and beautiful dogs aroused huge interest in themselves. At the same time the local dobermania appeared proud of their very successful breeding, the experts. Here is how an eyewitness enthusiastically describes the work of P. M. Ilovaisky in the Doberman ring at the 2nd all-Russian exhibition in Moscow (1928): “as always, I am stingy with words of P. M. ilovaisky,..but it is clear to an Amateur who is more or less familiar with the breed what the judge requires from the representatives of this breed. In the foreground – typicality, then the backbone (correct addition), then the musculature, then the color and shirt, and already, as the crown of everything – the harmony of lines.

… What kind of knowledge of the breed, what kind of experience you need to have in order to award everyone “according to his deeds”. I can’t help remembering the first meeting of two competitors for the first place, Amor von der Neve and Frey von Strezov, during the examination of Pyotr Markelovich. The crowd was thick around the ring, everyone was hotly discussing the merits of both dogs, dozens of opinions were expressed, but no General opinion was created; both competitors seemed too identical. And immediately, almost everyone immediately agreed with the judge’s opinion when it became known that Frey had beaten Amor. It was as if everyone’s eyes were opened at once: “after all, indeed, he has a raw nose, as we did not notice earlier,” everyone said.”

A remarkable cynologist ilovaisky, who liked the young Soviet population of Dobermans, was far from complacent, he noticed “a weakening of the Constitution and a bias towards the leptosomal type.” Back in 1925, he not only stated the obvious success, but also warned: “in such numbers and such cool Dobermans Moscow has not seen. Individuals like Ajax, Horst, bona, Bayard, Alraune and many others will be highly regarded at any exhibition, and such puppies as Bayard are born infrequently. So, we have a new and new high-end. But isn’t there something undesirable in this new one, weaknesses? There is and in General was observed the next: propensity to ukorachivaniyu ribs, drive to vzdernutosti on feet, some thinning the backbone of and narrowness in breast and, finally, weakness hoisted. I do not say that all this is strongly expressed – no, it is all in the form of hints, in the form of a border that should not be crossed. As insignificant as these shortcomings are, they still suggest that these small but undesirable disadvantages will not be passed on to posterity, will they not appear in posterity underlined? We have only the pedigrees of the ancestors of the Moscow winners of 1925, in the “face” of these ancestors we know very little or do not know at all, and this is very important when mating.”

Not all breeders listened to this caution of a far-sighted specialist. Wanting to consolidate the refinement of Frey in the offspring, it was used with a fairly close inbreeding on its ancestors, and also conducted a homogeneous selection, i.e., it was knitted with females who also had a tendency to over-development.

Much better results were obtained by combining the “Northern” and “southern” lines. Often, but not always intelligently used on the tribe of Frey, left a large and sometimes very high-quality livestock. Good were his children from the already mentioned Bor, Bona (inbreeding II-II on Lux) and Bianca von Kurpark.

Bianca was brought by Mazover from Germany at the age of seven, crowned with the glory of the all-German winner. She managed to prove herself at home as an excellent producer. Throughout this beautiful dog was unusual, and lived for almost 17 years. Twice or three times Mazover knitted it with Frey and got amazing offspring, including Gelza and Gilda, all-Union winners, as well as Fleck, recognized in the early 30s as the best producer of the breed. In 1930, he gave birth to knight F. Sportheim, whose mother was a daughter, Benno F. Forstenberg – a typical combination of that period. Knight belonged to a devoted fan of the breed, who carried his love for it through his entire life, N. K. Kvashnin.

Until about the mid-30s, it was fashionable among Soviet breeders to call their kennels in the German way: von der Neva, von Skhodnya, von Arbat, von Bernheim, von der Volga. f. Newground, von Russland, von Gluck, etc. Such a love for Germany under the pressure of political motives gradually faded.

Happy owner Freya and a good expert P. M. voitsik in 1934 year worried about declining interest in breed with hand leadership osoaviakhima and government departments. In his report on the X-th all-Union exhibition, he called for ” significantly expanding the purchase of Doberman pinchers.” And due to the fact that the main reason for the refusal of state kennels from the Doberman was its short hair, he insisted that research canine laboratories should be closely engaged in “acclimatization of this breed”.

Both of these calls hung in the air: acclimatize the Doberman to Russian frosts and cold Soviet kennels, thank God, failed, because the return to the antediluvian Doberman attracted few people from dobermanists, and to buy new dogs by this time it was not possible. The iron curtain had already closed. Established contacts of domestic dog breeders with Western ones were interrupted for many decades.